From the book 'Thala thun Alamah lil-Munafiqin' by Aa'id Abdullah Al-Qarni. All quotes uncited are from there. Notes by me will be in this color.
Signs of the Hypocrites
Abu Hurayrah (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) is reported to have said: "Surely, the worst of men are the two-faced. Who come to these with a face and to those with another face."
(Bukhari #6058, 7179) (Muslim #100-2526) (Tirmidhi #2025) (Abu Dawud #4782) (Ahmad 21307)
'Umar ibn Khattab (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) said: "What I fear most for my Ummah is every eloquent-tongued hypocrite."
(Jami Saghir #239) (Ahmad #137) (Foryabi #23)
The Holy Prophet (saw) is reported to have said: "What will happen to a people who place conditions (that are not found in Allah's Book)?"
(Bukhari #456, 1493, 2735, etc.)
The definition of hypocrisy:
"It is said that hypocrisy is the difference between the secret and the apparent, between the word and the deed, and between the entry and the exit. And it is said that the base of hypocrisy on which it is raised is falsehood."
(Farabi, Sifatul Munafiq #50)
The bolded meaning take what one does in private, and then what they do in public. That difference is a hypocrisy. Any kind of inconsistency is a possible detour into hypocrisy. Simply put, hypocrisy is not just being un-Islamic on the 'inside' (secretly) and Islamic on the 'outside' (apparently), but being Islamic on the inside (secretly) and being un-Islamic on the outside (apparently) is also a hypocrisy. It may be treated differently depending on the circumstances, but it entails all the side-effects of hypocrisy on the self and psyche. And lying's lying, with the punishment thereof, in all but three cases (during war, to reconcile two Muslims, and to save a marriage).
There are two kinds of hypocrisies:
1) Hypocrisy in belief. Or 'aqeedah. This is outright Kufr (disbelief). Beyond, even, for such a person is a Kafir. There are even avenues to persecute this through Shariah which normally recognizes any kind of verbal shahadah as an oath of Islam by law. These are the Munafiq (hypocrites).
2) Hypocrisy in practice, but not in belief. This does not remove a person from Islam, though they might resemble those that are. They are just sinners. However, habitually sinning does make the person a hypocrite. To habitually sin is to disbelieve (bad or false 'aqeedah) for "faith is included in speech and promise". Were it not for the early jurists and scholars who clearly defined it (on the basis of the Sahaba and the Prophet (saw) of course and them on the basis of the Mercy and ease in Islam), we'd even take complete action as a part of faith through common sense; 'He who does not live his belief does not believe.' - Sigmund Freud
From a Hadith: "Avoid falsehood, for falsehood leads to immodesty (immorality) and immodesty leads to Hell." (Bukhari #6094) (Muslim #105-2067) (Tirmidhi #1971) (Abu Dawud #4989) (Darami #2715) (Malik's Muwatta #18 56.15) (Ahmad 1/384,432)
Mu'awiyah Ibn Haydah (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) also said: "Woe to one who lies, who lies when he speaks that people may laugh. Woe to him. Woe to him." (Abu Dawud #4990) (Tirmidhi #2315) (Ahmad 5/5 7) (Jami Saghir #7136)
Ibn Mas'ud (ra) narrates that Allah's Messenger (saw) said: "A believer is not one who taunts, nor one who reviles, nor one who is immoral, nor one who is shameless." (Tirmidhi #1977) (Ahmad 1/405) (Bayhaqi #5149)
One of the four signs of hypocrisy is that a person abuses when they quarrel.
Jabir narrates that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "Between a man, and polytheism and disbelief, is neglect of the Salah." (Muslim #82-134) (Abu Dawud #4678) (Tirmidhi #2618) (Ibn Majah #1078) (Ahmad 3/370)
The hypocrites also offered the Salah lest they be counted among the disbelievers, but they were lethargic and there were shortcomings in their Salah. The hypocrites were distinguished by these shortcomings in the Salah:
1. Being lethargic and late-comers.
"The hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, whereas He will involve them in deception. And when they stand up for prayer, they stand up lazily they do it to be seen by (other) people, and they remember not Allah but a little."
"And that they come not to offer the Salah but sluggishly, and that they expend not but unwillingly."
The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "This is the Salah of the hypocrite: he sits till the sun turns yellow, he rises and offers the four rak'at, not mentioning Allah therein but a little." (Abu Dawud #413)
2. Offering Salah at one jump.
Once a person entered Masjid-e-Nabawi and quickly performed salaat. After the salaat he went to Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam and made salaam. He replied to the salaam and said: “Go back and repeat your salaat, for you have not
prayed.” The person went back and again repeated the salaat in haste. After that he went to Rasoolullah sallallahu
alayhi wasallam and greeted him with salaam. He replied to the salaam and said: “Go back and repeat your salaat, for you have not prayed.” The person went back and yet again repeated the salaat in haste. He went to Rasoolullah sallallahu
alayhi wasallam and made salaam. He replied to the salaam and said: “Go back and repeat your salaat. You have not
prayed.” This time the person asked, “O Rasoolullah! This is the only way I know how to perform salaat. You
teach me how to perform it.” Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “When you stand up for salaat, make complete ablution, then face the Ka’ba, recite takbir and read what is easy for you from the Qur’an. Afterwards do ruku’ till you are at ease with the ruku’; then rise up till you stand erect in qaumah; then do sajdah till you are at ease with the sajdah; then rise up till you are at ease with the jalsah” (Mishkat-al-Masabih). (Narrated by Rifa'ah (ra) in Tirmidhi #303) (Narrated by Abu Hurayrah (ra) in Bukhari #757) (Muslim 45-397) (Abu Dawud #856 (Rifa'ah)) (Nasa'i #1054) (Ibn Majah #1060) (Ahmad 2/437)
To get an excellent guide on how to easily fix these shortcomings, get Abdur Rauf's Some Serious Mistakes in Salaat from this free site.
If Salah does not meet that standard, it is the Salah of the hypocrites. "They are worshippers, yet they face destruction."
3. To regard Salah (with Jamaat) as a burden.
Ibn Abbas (ra) narrated that the Prophet (saw) said: "He who hears the adhan but does not come to it, for him is no Salah unless he has a reason." (Abu Dawud #551) (Ibn Majah #93)
Ali (ra) said: "There is no Salah for the neighbour of the mosque, except in the mosque." Someone asked, "who is the mosque's neighbour?" He said: "One who hears the call (adhan)." (Musanaff Abdur Razzaq 1/497,498)
Congregational Salah is fardh on men. Those of you who live on college campuses finally have a positive opportunity in light of the Sunnah. There are usually prayer rooms or halls set aside where Jamaat is held for all five Salahs, and these are in immediate reach, closer than any Mosque could be.
4. Failing to pray Friday three times without an excuse.
The Prophet (saw) said: "People must cease to miss their Fridays else Allah will apply a seal on their hearts. Then they will become those who are neglectful." He also said: "He who misses three Fridays without an excuse will be recorded among the hypocrites."
"The hypocrite men and women are as one from another. They enjoin the wrong, and they forbid the right, and they withhold their hands (from expending in the way of Allah). They forget Allah, so He has forgotten them. Surely the hypocrites are the transgressors."
Enjoining the wrong and forbidding the right doesn't necessarily mean to literally tell someone to stop something specifically right and do instead this specific wrong action. For instance, frowning upon a person for growing out the beard according to the Sunnah and approving of someone who is clean shaven is enjoining the wrong and forbidding the right. When it is said to 'enjoin right', it means smartly and subtley, so as not to offend (and drive the person away from that very action). So if someone enjoins wrong in a similarly low-key and subtle way, it is the same. One does not need to shout wrong things from the rooftops to be enjoining wrong.
"Ostentation is a blameworthy quality and it is a minor kind of polytheism."
Thawban (ra) narrated that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "Surely, I know a section of my Ummah who will come on the day of resurrection with piety like the mountains of Tihamah (in hugeness). But Allah will scatter their pieties like particles of dust in all directions." He asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), describe them to us. Make them well known to us that we may not be like them unknowingly." He said, "They are your brothers, of your own race. They devote to worship in the night as you do, but they are a people who when alone commit the forbidden that Allah has disallowed." (Ibn Majah #4245)
Jundub (ra) narrated that the Prophet (saw) said: "He who makes his doings heard, Allah will make his (evil intention) heard and he who shows off Allah will make him be seen (with his intention)." (Bukhari #6499) (Muslim #48-2987) (Tirmidhi #2381) (Ibn Majah #4207) (Ahmad 3/40)
Mahmud Ibn Labid (ra) narrates that the Prophet (saw) said: "What I fear most for you is the minor polytheism." He said, "O Messenger of Allah (saw), what is that?" He replied, "Ostentation. Allah will say on the Day of Resurrection when He rewards the people for their deeds, 'Go to those whom you showed (your doings) in the world, and see if you find with them a reward.'" (Ahmad #22523) (Bayhaqi #6831) (Jami Saghir #1555)
The Prophet (saw) taught a prayer for when we fail to disassociate partners with Him in our worship and other doings (specifically when being ostentatious, minor polytheism... shirk): 'Allahumma innee a'oodhobika an ushrika bika wa anna a'lamu wa astaghfiruka limaala a'lam' (Ahmad 4/403, narrated by Abu Musa Ah'ari (ra))
Ridiculing, Taunting, and Blaming - Making Fun of Someone
"Those who find fault with the believers who give alms cheerfully and such as find not anything to give but their hard earnings-they deride them. Allah derides them and for them is a painful chastisement.""There are people today who make fun of Muslims who adhere to the dictates of Islam and give charity, are inclined to piety, offer the Salah, wear garments according to the Shariah, grow the beard or take part in Jihad. If a woman uses the veil, they taunt her and say that these are old fashioned people. They consider themselves modern. But, they will not hear anything against the disbelievers who are their ideal." Actions speak louder than words sometimes.
Abu Mas'ud (ra) said about this verse: "When we were commanded to give the Sadaqah, we were labourers. Abu Aqil (ra) came with half a Sa' (of dates) and another man (Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (ra)) brought more than that. The hypocrites exclaimed 'Surely Allah is in no need of this Sadaqah, and this second one has not done it but to show off.' This verse (9:79) was then revealed." (Bukhari #1415 4668) (Muslim #72-1018)
"With the increase of hypocrisy in him, the hypocrite finds the Islamic ordinances and teachings a burden on him and he begins to abandon them. He begins to make fun of them."
"And if you questoin them, then they will certainly say, 'we were only jesting and playing.' Say, 'What, was it then at Allah and His revelations and His Messenger that you have been mocking? Make no excuses. You have indeed disbelieved after your belief. If we forgive a party of you we shall chastise another party, because they have been sinners.'"Think about this sin. What are they doing other than being critical, even satirical of the leader of their times? We abhor it because we know of his nature, his holy status and his prophethood. But to them, he was just another leader. If Islam brought them great things, they shared in them. And they looked after themselves and avoided it when they thought it prudent. They had no faith, and a seal was set over them, a veil over their eyes, so that they couldn't see the common sense behind the religion. They couldn't believe. Treating the Prophet (saw) in such a manner now is unheard of, even in the hypocrite camps, because praising him is easy, effortless, and a good way to make yourself look good. But do we treat his injunctions and his religion the same? One of our greatest assets, the compilation and codification of the Deen in form of the books of Hadith, Fiqh, etc. also makes it easy for us to treat differently various aspects of it. Whereas the Pious Predecessors and Sahaba (ra) treated it all with equal reverence.
Qatadah (ra) said about this particular verse: "While the Prophet (saw) was engaged in the battle of Tabouk and a unit of the hypocrites was ahead of him, they said, 'He presumes that he will conquer the castles of Rome and its forts. Away, away!' Allah let his Prophet (saw) know of that which they were saying. So, he said: 'It is incumbent on me to reckon with these people,' and he summoned them and disclosed to them what they had been saying. They swore, 'We were not but merely jesting and playing.' (Tafsir Ibn Kathir) (Tabaari 14:333)
A Muslim is one from whose hand and tongue other people (especially Muslims) are safe. (Bukhari #11 6484) (Muslim # 41-65 40-64) (Tirmidhi # 2627)
Ibn Mas'ud (ra) narrated that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "There are for interest seventy-three gates. The least harmful of these is like a man committing adultery with his mother. And the most harmful is to damage a Muslim's honour." (Jami us-Saghir #3539)
To Forbid Piety and Enjoin Evil
"The hypocrite men and women are as one from another. They enjoin the wrong, and they forbid the right, and they withhold their hands (from expending in the way of Allah). They forget Allah, so He has forgotten them. Surely the hypocrites are the transgressors."
"Preventing piety may take various forms. One who offers the Salah may be mocked, a servant may not be permitted to pray, disallowing someone to take part in Jihad and speaking against it, not keeping fast and ridiculing those who do, and discouraging other people to build mosques or Islamic schools (madrassahs).
Enjoining evil may also take different forms. One may invite others to watch forbidden things in movies or on television, to tease women, to encourage the customs of evil people, to advocate an evil social life, to discourage the veil, to say the veil is only of the heart or only of the eyes, to sell intoxicants, to circulate immoral material through print media, to spread immodesty in the same manner, etc."
This was mentioned earlier. Yikes.
To Promote Immodesty, To Listen to Music, To Tease Women and Girls
"Surely those who love that indecency should be spread concerning those who believe, for them shall be a painful chastisement in this world and the Hereafter. And Allah knows while you know not."
This verse makes it clear to sell forbidden musical instruments, music, films/videos, and spread forbidden things on television then spread the television and the services thereof, etc. are all hypocritical deeds.
"And of mankind is he who buys frivolous discourse to lead astray (others) from Allah's way without knowledge, and to take it in mockery. For them is a humiliating chastisement."
"In the times of the Prophet (saw), men would loiter on street corners and tease passing women. When they were reprimanded, they put forward the pretext that they did not know if the women were slaves or respectable free ladies. So Allah ordained the veil:"
"O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their outer garments close round them. In this way, it is more probable that they will be recognized and not annoyed. And Allah is forgiving, Merciful."The famous hypocrite, verily their chief in Madinah, Abdullah Ibn Ubayy used to force his female slaves to prostitution. Allah made known his filthy deed in the verse 24:33. Clearly, Muslims prefer to live a chaste life and only the hypocrites among them promote indecency. Many people find excuses to make adultery common in the society. Their character resembles that of the hypocrites."
To Behave Shamelessly
"Modesty and decency are the blessings that keep a person away from evil. When they are lacking, the person is willing to do every wrong."
Ibn Mas'ud (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "Surely, from the words of the early prophethood that which has reached the people is: when you do not feel ashamed, do whatever you like." (Bukhari #6120) (Abu Dawud #4797) (Ibn Majah #4183) (Ahmad 4/121)
"Muhgirah (ra) narrated that Sa'd Ibn Ubadah (ra) narrated that if he were to see a stranger with his wife, he would strike him with the blade or sharp edge of his sword. This was conveyed to the Prophet (saw) and he asked, 'Are you surprised of Sa'd's sense of modesty? I have a greater sense of it than he and Allah has a greater one than I.'" (Bukhari #7416) (Muslim #17-1499) (Ahmad #17464 4/248)
"Say, 'I ask you not for a reward for it, nor am I of the imposters.'"
The word used for imposters is 'al-mutakallifin'. It implies 'to intentionally speak highly of oneself,' 'pretentions,' 'affectation.'
Abdullah (ra) narrated that Anas (ra) said: "We were with 'Umar (ra) and he said, 'We are forbidden to overdo anything or to use affectation.'" (Bukhari #7393)
To Lack Understanding of Religion
"An understanding of religion is a great blessing of Allah."
The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "When Allah decides to let someone have good, He gives them an understanding of religion." (Bukhari #71, Muslim #100-1037, Ahmad 4/92 1/306, Tirmidhi #2645, Ibn Majah #220 (Narrated by Mu'awiyah (ra), Abu Hurayrah (ra) and Ibn Abbas (ra))"However, a hypocrite is deprived of religious knowledge and understanding though he may have mastered worldly knowledge. Allah says:
"They know the outward appearance of the life of this world, but of the Hereafter they are heedless."There are many instances in the Qur'an to prove that the hypocrites know not, percieve not, and understand not. We read in Surah ul-Munafiqun (The Hypocrites):
"They are those who say: 'Expend not on those who are with Allah's Messenger until they disperse.' And to Allah belong the treasures of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites understand not. They say, 'If we return to Al-Madinah, the mightier ones of it will expel therefrom the meaner ones.' And might belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger and the Believers, but the hypocrites know not."And in Surah al-Baqarah, we read:
"They seek to deceive Allah and those who believe, whereas they deceive none but themselves, but they percieve not."In short, a hypocrite is unaware of religious knowledge. He may be proficient in worldly sciences and may even try to acquire them, but he lacks profiency in religious sciences. The hypocrites cite the Hadith that 'it is fardh on every Muslim to acquire knowledge' to gain worldly sciences, conveniently ignoring its meaning to gain Divine awareness, knowledge of the Qur'an and Sunnah. While it is not disallowed at all to acquire worldly sciences yet it is meaningless to acquire them without religious knowledge. Knowledge of religion is a means of success in the hereafter, therefore it must be sought first."
"And when it is said to them, 'Believe as (other) people have believed,' they say, 'Shall we believe as the fools have believed?' Beware! Surely they are the foolish ones but they know it not."
To Have Doubts About the Divine Decree (Predestination)
Refer to the Hadith about the definitions of Iman, Islam, and Ihsan. The definition of Iman (Faith), according to the Prophet (saw)'s answer to Jibrail (as) included: "That you believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messenger and the Last Day, and that you believe in the decreeing both of good and evil." Jibrail (as) said: "You have spoken the truth." (Muslim #1) (Abu Dawud #4695) (Ibn Majah #63) (Ahmad 1/51) (Narrated by 'Umar ibn Khattab (ra))
Jabir (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (saw) said: "A person does not believe unless he (also) believes in the decreeing both of good and evil till he is convinced that what has afflicted him could not have been averted and what has bypassed him could not have afflicted him." (Tirmidhi #2144) (Jami Saghir #7585)The hypocrites, however, raise objections. Like they did after the Battle of Uhud when seventy Sahaba (ra) were martyred. Allah says about them:
"And we shall certainly try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of riches and lives and fruits. And give glad tidings to the persevering, who when on affliction befalls them, say, 'surely, we belong to Allah and to Him we are to return.' Those are they on whom are (bestowed) blessings and mercy from their Lord. And those, they are the rightly guided."
"Those who said of their brethren, while they themselves held back, 'had they obeyed us, they would not have been slain.' Say 'Then avert death from yourselves, if you are truthful.'"
To Spread Mischief on Earth
Including terrorists and those who wage harabah (against civilization, either openly in the name of Jihad or secretly through other means):
"The only recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive to do corruption in the land, is that they should be slain or crucified, or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides, or they should be banished from the land. That is a degradation for them in this world, and in the hereafter awaits them a mighty chastisement."It also applies to the subtle variety:
The Holy Prophet (saw) said: "The Muslim is one from whose tongue and hands other Muslims are safe." (Bukhari #10) (Muslim #65-41) (Tirmidhi #2627) (Abu Dawud #2481) (Narrated by Abdullah Ibn Amr (ra) and Abu Hurayrah (ra))Keep in mind this is all about other Muslims, not disbelievers. In this day and age, many people go further and harm religion via innovations or outright marginalization in the name of progress:
"And of mankind there is he whose talk about the life of the world pleases you, and he calls on Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most stubborn in altercation. And when he turns back, he makes effort in the land to do corruption therein and to destroy the tillage and the stock, and Allah loves not corruption. And when it is said to him, 'Fear Allah,' arrogance seizes him in sin so Hell shall be enough for him, and it is certainly an evil resting place."
"And when it is said to them, 'Do not do corruption on the earth,' they say, 'we are only peacemakers.' Beware! Surely they are the corrupters, but they perceive it not."This can apply to anyone from heads of state to those in your neighborhood.
Seeking Faults in Other Muslims
Ibn 'Umar (ra) narrates that Bara Ibn Aazib (ra) narrated that Allah's Messenger (saw) addressed them so that women (also) heard him within their veils. He called out in a loud voice, "O company of those who have believed with their tongues, but faith has not been established sincerely in whose hearts, do not backbite the Muslims and do not seek to find their faults, for, who seeks to find the faults of his brother, Allah will seek out his faults. And he whose faults are sought by Allah, He will expose him (even) in the deepest part of his home." (Tirmidhi #2032) (Abu Dawud #4880) (Ahmad 4/421) (Ibn Hibban)This is also used as a defense by the hypocrites to be left alone, but they fool no one. Noting someone's apparent faults without resorting to spying and investigation in order to be better aware and defended from that person's mischief or influence is a complete other matter.
To Be Careful of Appearances But Neglect The Hidden
"A Muslim is careful to set right both the apparent as well as the hidden aspects of his being. (Jami Saghir #1742) Whereas a hypocrite only concentrates on the apparent, their outward forms, and neglects his hidden inner side.
"And when you see them, their figures please you and if they speak, you listen to their speech. (yet) they are like propped-up beams of timber. They think every shout (they hear) to be against them. They are the enemy, So beware of them. May Allah destroy them! How are they perverted!"The verse clearly describes first their pleasing figures and physical forms, on which they spend much time, their eloquent and pleasing speech, but then points out their insecure and almost paranoid nature. A clue to what lays inside. Beware of Muslims who approach you as these.
Zayd Ibn Arqam (ra) said about this verse that the hypocrites were men of apparent beauty! (Muslim #1-2772)
To Rely on Laws Other Than Allah's
This has two manifestations. The more serious and prominent one is to literally rely on the courts and law systems that are not Shariah unless the outcome is pleasing in the latter.
The other is the everyday process of internally passing judgement on all that we see or interact with around us.
"Those who do not judge by the Qur'an and the Sunnah are sinners, transgressors, and infidels. Allah says:"
"And whosoever judges not by what Allah has revealed, so those, they are the disbelievers."
"...they are the evildoers."
"...they are the transgressors."
To Do That Which Harms Religion
Uqbah Ibn Aamir (ra) narrated that he heard Allah's Messenger (saw) say, "The ruin of my Ummah lies in the Book (the Qur'an) and the milk."The first part is completely obvious to even those in the worst denial.
Someone asked, "O Messenger of Allah (saw)! What, in the Book and the milk?" He said, "They will learn the Qur'an and will interpret it in a way other than it was revealed. And, they will love the milk and forsake the congregational Salah and the Friday Salah. And they will take to the villages."
Ibn Rajab explained this Hadith: "They will stay in the villages for the number of days there is plenty of milk and that is a lengthy period always. During this period, they will forsake the Salah of Friday and the Salah with the congregation."Congregational Salah and Friday Salah are fardh on men. Villages means outlying or remote areas where there are no Mosques so these opportunities do not exist. People will flock to these areas, leaving behind populated Muslim areas where Mosques and opportunities to practice their Deeni duties are aplenty.
Character of the Hypocrites
Two kinds of hypocrites are worth special mention. The kind who believe that Paradise is only for them and those who share their opinions. They wage war on their fellow Muslims and kill them. The other is he who pursues his whims and wishes and is not stopped by anyone. He goes into a rage for the world, does whatever it takes to get it, kills and fights for it, and shows a wildness for it. They'll do whatever it takes, regardless of moral obligations, to get what they want.
These two kinds come in varying degrees of course. You do not need to kill and wage war. Holding these views and turning your activities and focus in this regard is enough. However, pushed to the limit, they would break all limits.
Analyse carefully the following:
"Have you considered him who takes his caprice to be his god?"In Western terminology, the psychology of these types clearly conform to the popular personality disorders such as Narcissistic, Borderline, Antisocial, Histrionic, etc. They lack a conscience of the kind that normal people have.
Hasan (ra) said about it: "He is the hypocrite who does whatever he likes." (Sifat ul Munafiq #45)
Qatadah (ra) said about it: "He is one who gets done whatever he wants to do." (Tafsir Qurtubi 16/166) (Tafsir Tabari 25/150) (Sifat ul Munafiq #46)
"The hypocrites also pleaded that if a correct Jihad was being waged, they would have joined definitely. Or, if they had the expertise, they would have fought." Verse 3:167 is about this.
Carefully ponder the following:
"And be not like those who say, 'We have heard,' while they hear not."
The Qur'an has several verses illustrating examples of hypocrites with parables and the like.
"Their similitude is as the similitude of a man who kindled a fire, so when it lit all around him, Allah took away their light, and left them in (utter) darkness (where) they could see nothing deaf, dumb (and) blind; so they will not return."The theme there being that in brief flashes of light (visions or understandings of Islam), they move forward. Otherwise they halt or regress as in darkness when the light goes out. "They see the truth sometimes and they fall into doubt other times. Their doubt is like the rain in the darkness." And they are to eventually be left in darkness.
"Or as a rainstorm from the heaven, wherein is darkness and thunder, and lightning they put their fingers in their ears against the thunderclaps, for fear of death. And Allah encompasses the disbelievers. The lightning well-nigh snatches away their sight. Whenever it gives them light they walk in it, and when it becomes dark over them, they halt. And had Allah willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. Surely Allah has power over everything."
"And they swear by Allah that they are truly of you, whereas they are not of you, but they are a people who are afraid. If they could find a refuge or some caverns, or a place to enter into, they would surely have resorted there to crushingly.""When the light of Islam falls on them, they get some of it in their hearts and join the Muslims. But when Islam faces difficulty or trying times, they retreat away from the Muslims." A hypocrite also does not have his sins erased via hardships, difficulties, sickness, etc. like a normal Muslim. An example in the Hadith is of a blade of grass that bends with the wind, then straightens itself. A hypocrite is compared to a pine tree. It does not bend but remains straight until one day it is uprooted suddenly. Their illness is sudden and final.
This one is truly unsettling for most can identify with it:
"Wavering between that (and this) belonging neither to these nor to those. And whomsoever Allah sends astray, you will not find a way for him."Their final fate:
Narrated Ibn Umar (ra), the Prophet (saw) said, "The example of a hypocrite is like an ewe that moves from one flock to another not knowing which one to follow." (Muslim #17) (Nasa'i #5037) (Ahmad 2/47)
The Prophet (saw) said: "...then He will meet the third and say to him the same words (as before), and he will respond, 'My Lord, I believed in you, your Book and your Messengers. I offered the Salah, I fasted and I gave the Zakah.' He will laud himself with piety as much as he can. Allah will say, 'Here (you stay) then,' and He will say, 'Now we bring to you our witnesses.' He will wonder to himself who could testify against him. So his mouth will be sealed and it will be said to his thighs, his flesh, and his bones, 'Speak!' And they will speak concerning his deeds. This will be in order that justice might be dispensed to him and Allah will be angry with that hypocrite." (Muslim #16-2968)Refer to verses 58:18, 57 : 13 through 15.
Guarding Against Hypocrisy And Our Current Era
Hypocrisy is a disease that drives faith out of the heart. Sometimes a person is unaware that it has taken up residence in their heart and they perform the deeds of a hypocrite unknowingly.
The Sahaba (ra):
Abu Ayyub Ansari (ra) said, "Times will come to a man when he has not even a needle's worth of hypocrisy in him. But times will also come to him when he does not have faith even the worth of a needle." (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #77)Our time:
Jubayr Ibn Nufayr (ra) said that he heard Abu Darda (ra) while he was finishing his Salah. He sought refuge in Allah from hypocrisy and he sought it again and again. Jubayr asked him, 'What's with you, o Abu Darda? You and hypocrisy?' He said, 'Leave me alone. By Allah, a man turns away from his religion in just a moment, and comes out of it.'" (Sifat un Nafiq #73)
Aban asked Hasan and he asserted, "what gives me security from hypocrisy when (even ) Umar Ibn Khattab (ra) was fearful of it?" (Ibid)
Mu'awiyah Ibn Qurrah (ra) said, "That there is no element of hypocrisy in me would be dearer to me than the world and whatever it contains. Indeed, Umar (ra) was fearful of it, how then may I be safe from it?" (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #86)
Mu'lla ibn Ziyad said that he had heard Hasan swear in the Mosque - By Allah other than whom there is no God, there has never been nor is a believer who has no fear of hypocrisy. And there was never, nor is, a hypocrite who fears hypocrisy. He who does not fear hypocrisy is a hypocrite. (Ibid #87)
The slave of Ghafarah, Umar (ra) said: "The furthest of men from hypocrisy and the most fearful of them for himself is one who finds that nothing can save him from it." (Sifat ul Munafiq #94)
Ibrahim Taymi (ra) said, "When I compare my words with my deeds, I am fearful lest I be a liar." (Bukhari chapter 36, Book of Faith, heading preceding Hadith #48)
Ibn Abu Mulaykah said, "I met thirty of the Prophet's (saw) Sahaba (ra). Each one of them was fearful of hypocrisy in himself. There was none among them who said that he had the faith of Jibril (as) and Mika'il (as)." (Ibid)
Ayshah (ra) narrated that when Allah's Messenger (saw) died, hypocrisy was already visible in Madinah and the Arabs apostated. (Sifat un Nifaq wa Na't ul Munafiqin #117) (Mu'jam Awsat (Tabarani) 5/48) (Mu'jam Saghir 2/214)
Hudhayfah (ra) narrated: "Surely if a man among you spoke something in the times of the Prophet (saw), he became a hypocrite because of that. But today, I hear it from one of you ten times." (Ahmad #23191)
'Umar Ibn Khattab (ra) narrated: "Three things destroy Islam: the straying of a scholar, the hypocrite's debating with the Qur'an, and the misleading Imams (who rule and lead)." (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #31) (Darami #647)
Hudhayfah (ra) said, "The hypocrites who are among you today are worse than the hypocrites who were in the times of Allah's Messenger (saw)." Someone asked him, "O Abu Abdullah, how is that?" He said: "Those people used to conceal their hypocrisy while these ones make it known." (Musnad Abu Dawud Tiyalsi p55) (Ibn Abu Shaybah 15/109) (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #53) (Sifat un-Nifaq wa Na't ul-Munafiq #110)
Anas Ibn Maalik (ra) narrated that Allah's Messenger (saw) said, "Before the Last Hour, there will be fitnah (trials and mischief) like parts of a dark night. A man will arise in the morning as a believer but evening will find him to be a disbeliever. He will see the evening as a believer but come to morning as a disbeliever. And people will sell their religion in return for worldly possessions." (Tirmidhi #2197) (Ahmad #17711) (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #104)
Abdullah Ibn Umar (ra) said, "A time will come to the people when they will assemble in their Mosques but there will not be among them a believer." (Sifat ul Munafiq #108) (Ibn Abu Shaybah #30355)
Mu'adah Ibn Jabal (ra) said, "Surely, behind you are trials when there would be abundant wealth and the Qur'an would be opened so much so that everyone will take it the believer and the hypocrite, man and woman, the young and the old, the free man and the slave (meaning they will learn it). Perhaps a speaker might say, 'What is it with the people. They do not follow me though I have recited the Qur'an? They will not follow me till I introduce for them something other than it.' Hence, beware of innovations! Surely, that which is innovated is error (and misleading)." (Abu Dawud #4611) (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #41)
Hasan (ra) said, "The Last Hour will not come till every people are governed by their hypocrites." (Sifat ul Munafiq (Faryabi) #117)May Allah save us.